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The Rudiments of Alpine

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发表于 2015-6-16 11:33:18 | 显示全部楼层
mark
 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-16 17:45:39 | 显示全部楼层

How to ice-axe self arrest

How to ice-axe self arrest



Reference
The Rudiments of Alpine. Directory.
 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-19 05:22:32 | 显示全部楼层

Base Alpine Emergency Set

Alpine Tip #29  Base Alpine Emergency Set

Chances of spending an unexpected alpine night are never zero. No matter where you go, would it be climbing Mt. Rainier, hiking Brunswick-Harvey loop or doing Musical Bumps carryover,  always carry a light emergency set: SOL bivy, tarp and a small pad or air mattress. Don't forget to add a protein bar or two.

1. Survive Outdoors Longer Emergency Bivvy.
Weight: 108g
A good emergency bivy sack, the metalized fabric reflects up to 90% of your radiated body heat. It's waterproof, windproof, and extremely light. Comes with its own extra-large stuff sack, which will also accommodate extra survival gear.



2. Silicone Scout Tarp. Weight: 515g
The Scout is a favourite option for ultra-light hikers. It also makes a fine small shelter for two people on a ski trip or a day trip that leads to a windy summit or lakeshore. The silicone-treated fabric is awesomely light and compact and has incredible tear-resistance. It is a versatile design that you can rig as a roof, or pitch at an angle to create a comfortable shelter from the wind.



3. Small foam pad or air mattress.
This one will let insulate your body from ground.
发表于 2015-6-19 06:52:07 | 显示全部楼层

[分享] 体验 SOL

看到博士如上所述,不由得想和大家分享一下我使用SOL的经历。

记得去年一月我们跟着博士去Keith's Hut,博士就一直强调SOL的重要性,我当然是准备了,但是它和其他放在emergency kit里的东西一样,在我眼里,就像是air bag,用到它?几乎没有可能!有时候觉得像个摆设,只是不摆不行,不能下架(否则我就跟不了队伍了),好在很轻,倒也没什么抱怨。

就这样,一年多过去了,它总是静静地呆在我的小包里,我们彼此相安无事。谁曾想我会真的一天用到它呢?两个月前,去Assiniboine公园的Magog湖,冰天雪地,本来是个day hike,却因为公园的空无一人和没上锁的Naiset Hut,强烈激发了我们要留下来的愿望。博士问“你带了SOL吗?”当然带了。“那好吧,让我们来测试一下它的功能。”我这个习惯跟随的人,在这样的高手面前当然是提不出什么反对的意见的,但是心里也有些紧张,担心会冻得睡不了觉,那不就是一个大大的“塑料袋”吗?能行吗?而且不是几个小时,而是一夜哦!不过呢,想归想,大自然的吸引力还是远远超过这个小小的不安。住就住!

日落后,我们回到木屋,木屋因为有烤火的炉子很温暖,所以入睡是一点问题也没有,SOL准备好了,但是还不需要它。好景不长,炉子没多久就灭了,气温越来越低了,便钻进了SOL,还真没想到,它真的很管用,虽然很薄,可是马上就不觉得冷了。和羽绒睡袋还不一样,冬天雪地露营时,在睡袋里,有时候还觉得外面的冷气紧贴着你,动一动都不行,我常常在睡袋和身体之间垫上多带的羽绒衣感觉才会好些;可是SOL让你没有那样的感觉,保温和防风效果极好,我是只穿着短袖速干衣在SOL的包裹里过了一夜的。怎么样,难以想象吧?

在这里也要说一下它的不尽人意的特点:袋子里面会很湿。人在睡觉的时候多多少少会翻身,在我们把它当睡袋的情况下,问题就来了--- 一翻身,袋子就跟着动,那袋子内壁积着的水就会流下来,或者碰到你的皮肤凉凉的,这种感觉很不好受,后来我就尽量一个姿势睡觉,努力保持静止状态。话说回来,这样的不足和它在紧急时起的作用相比,真可忽略不计。有了它,我才有机会看到Mt Assiniboine的日出日落,才没被冻坏安全地回来。

还没有准备SOL的各位,看到这里,是否有了添置它的念头呢?
 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-19 07:19:26 | 显示全部楼层
The emergency foam pad (item #3) was also used in the Crown Mountain Accident in 2012, coincidentally exactly three years ago. The victim was getting hypothermic lying on the small snow platform waiting for rescue helicopter, the pad helped to insulate his soaked body from the cold surface. (He was located under stream inside the moat,  with broken leg and in shock, unable to get out. It took approx. one hour before team found and extracted him from where he was. By then he was already shaking from cold. It took another 2.5 hours before he was flown out.) .
 楼主| 发表于 2015-6-23 11:14:00 | 显示全部楼层

How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

Alpine Tip #30  How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

1. As always, layers is the main principle in preventing body heat escape. Therefore, two light summer sleeping bags combined are a lot better than one single thick winter one. Carry one bag of your size and another one size bigger. Make sure it is longer than you height to accommodate your boots (or they will get frozen solid). Besides, -20C winter sleeping bag, not only super expensive, but is also absolutely useless in summer.

2. Unfold sleeping bag just before going inside, or it will take cold air (-20C) and you will spend a long time warming it up.

3. When sleeping avoid moving your body much, or the movement will push inside air out and take cold air in. Again, it will take time to warm it up.

4. 25% of body heat is lost from the head. Wear thick woolen hat and/or a balaclava.

5. Before going to sleep, fill a plastic Nalgene water bottle with boiling water and place it inside the bag. You can drink that water at night too. As a backup you can also fill a 1L thermos and use that water for refill later-on. Using boilng water is a lot more effective, powerful and practical than commercial hand/toe warmers. Do not use Zippo hand warmers at all, produced fumes are very bad.

6. Wear woolen gloves.

7. Use air mattress. A simple one from MEC will do. Don't bother with expensive ones. Snow has very low thermal conductivity, so actual purpose of the air matters is not to protect you from cold, but protect your back from consequences of spending a night on a hard surface.

8. Wear parka and woolen socks.

9. In unlikely event of still being cold, use S.O.L. emergency bivy (or just a large garden plastic bag).

PHOTO: Digital thermometer measures -20.3C inside tent @   Mt. Rohr.
 楼主| 发表于 2015-7-19 06:59:01 | 显示全部楼层
Alpine Tip #31 Do not test your abilities in alpine.

Contrary to popular opinion, recreational unguided alpine is not the place where one goes to test his/her abilities ("limits").  Nor is it a training ground to sharpen someone's mountaineering techniques. This becomes obvious - sometimes too late - when reality turns out to be a lot harder than the present skills can handle. That's how all bad epics emerge. An annual issue of the book "Accidents in North American Mountaineering" is a convincing catalog of often tragic examples.

The "normal" way is to train yourself necessary skills under safe supervision and climb alpine routes that are two levels down in difficulty to what you have achieved so far. For example, before going to so called "scrambling" (which is basicly a term for any unprotected rock climbing or "free solo"), better first learn how to climb and downclimb beginner's rock (~5.2) in Squamish. Otherwise one day you may  find yourself stuck on some "easy" terrain not being able to climb up or climb back down (or worse).

P.S. The above only applies to self-propelled alpine trips, if you climb with a guide (the person who is in charge of providing your safety and you are not expected to provide his) then everything becomes very  different. 8)

 楼主| 发表于 2015-7-22 08:48:00 | 显示全部楼层
Alpine Tip #32 Cover your skin.

In alpine there many compelling reasons to cover all your skin. Base layer like Paradox Merino Blend set sold recently sold by  Costco will be just perfect.

Base layer will protect your skin :

1. From solar radiation ( = premature skin aging, skin cancer, ets.)
2. From dust.
3. From ticks (or lyme disease).
4. From contact with poison plants (e.g.poison oak)
5. From scratches made by tree branches and sharp plants.
6. Bug repellent better be applied on the fabric of base layer than directly to your skin.
7. Will prevent skin cuts in case of a fall on steep snow.


 楼主| 发表于 2016-2-7 08:54:25 | 显示全部楼层

Alpine Tip #33: How to select a partner

Alpine Tip #33 How to choose a partner

The internet is full of stories about trips ending in disaster only because the partners met each other online and never bothered to check if they would be good together. And yes, I have had these "disasters" myself more than once!

Here is a simple checklist that guarantees the trouble of this kind will be avoided.

1. The trip with potential partner must be safer than without him/her.
This is obvious of course, how can it be otherwise? Yet, often this most important factor is never examined before the trip. Ideally, you would want to make sure the partner will follow all the items listed here: EIGHT SAFETY HABITS OF A PERFECT HIKER.

2. The trip with potential partner must be more fun than without him/her.
Sure, who wants to see a long face on a completely silent day full of ready to be exploded electricity? Yet again, not only this element is often ignored, some trips end up the "partners" found themselves separated for almost the entire trip: after all, why to have a "partner" at all if he/she takes off at the trailhead to be never seen again?

3. The trip with potential partner should have more chances to succeed.
Having one common clearly defined goal is important and partners with different objectives is a recipe for disappointment.

Just because you "liked" the person without checking those three items above shouldn't be counted much, most of the successful alpine trips happen on a so called "neutral territory". Even more, I had good trips with a partner who didn't like me personally and it was mutual. After summiting and returning to the base camp we would trade sarcastic remarks about each other, and yet still go on the next trip together. "Touching the void" book / movie illustrates this point very well - "Although we are climbing partners, we are not friends" 8)

 楼主| 发表于 2016-2-24 06:37:45 | 显示全部楼层

Beginner mountaineering Courses by BCMC.

Beginner mountaineering Courses by BCMC. Year 2016.

Details at the moment are sketchy, but in any case the courses may fill fast. 8)

Alpine
----------------------------------------------------
Mountaineering Intro Weekend 1 (version 1)
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455853783

Mountaineering Intro Weekend 1 (version 2)
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455854404

Mountaineering Intro Weekend 2
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455855281

Mountaineering Intro Weekend 3
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455855678

----------------------------------------------------

Intro to Mountaineering for Women
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1443658437

Rock
----------------------------------------------------

Basic Outdoor Top-Roping
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455843850

Rock Climbing Essentials
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455844607

Social
----------------------------------------------------

BCMC Summer Camp 2016 (not really a course, but rather a social event - could be fun)
https://bcmc.ca/m/events/view/1455139961
 楼主| 发表于 2016-4-5 05:25:10 | 显示全部楼层
Alpine Tip #35 Don't guess slope angle, use tools.

On internet these days, it is not uncommon to read people's reports  snowshoeing slopes of "50-60 degrees". It is obvious, that certain folks have no clue what they are talking about.

Eyeball guessing a snow slope is never reliable, especially when one is looking down. A 25° slope will look like vertical. However, a 30° slope can kill, on 45° slope it is practically impossible to self-arrest with an ice-axe (too steep), ans slopes steeper than 50° are not climbable with snowshoes.

So, do yourself a favor and load to your smartphone an app that measures slope angle (search for "angle meter"), get to know how to use it and stop guessing! 8)

发表于 2016-4-6 13:05:48 | 显示全部楼层

Re: How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

博士:I have a question about "snow thermal conductivity". What does it mean?
I have always told people to use good insulated sleeping pad for camping in the snow. What kind of sleeping bag should I choose when sleeping on the SNOW VS. COLD HARD SURFACE?
Thanks!
PanShiBo
Alpine Tip #30  How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

7. Use air mattress. A simple one from MEC will do. Don't bother with expensive ones. Snow has very low thermal conductivity, so actual purpose of the air matters is not to protect you from cold, but protect your back from consequences of spending a night on a hard surface.


PHOTO: Digital thermometer measures -20.3C inside tent @   Mt. Rohr.
 楼主| 发表于 2016-4-6 13:25:01 | 显示全部楼层

Re: How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

eugene1213
博士:I have a question about "snow thermal conductivity". What does it mean?
I have always told people to use good insulated sleeping pad for camping in the snow. What kind of sleeping bag should I choose when sleeping on the SNOW VS. COLD HARD SURFACE?
Thanks!
..


thermal conductivity - "..ability to conduct heat.."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_thermal_conductivities

eugene1213
..What kind of sleeping bag should I choose when sleeping on the SNOW VS. COLD HARD SURFACE?
Thanks!
..


Two summer sleeping bags work fantastic in winter and that's what I always recommend to use. Get one bigger size and one normal size - for colder trips bring two bags, insert normal bag in bigger bag. People buy expensive -25C bags and that is a waste of money.  Having two summer bags is a lot cheaper than one -25C bag, it allows you to use normal size bag in summer, in shelters and in car camping, when -25C bag is impossible to sleep in (boiling hot!) unless it is at least -10C. Cold hard surface is colder than snow surface. So up to you to decide - some people sleep colder than other. 8)
发表于 2016-4-6 13:35:59 | 显示全部楼层

Re: How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

PanShiBo
[quote]eugene1213
博士:I have a question about "snow thermal conductivity". What does it mean?
I have always told people to use good insulated sleeping pad for camping in the snow. What kind of sleeping bag should I choose when sleeping on the SNOW VS. COLD HARD SURFACE?
Thanks!
..


thermal conductivity - "..ability to conduct heat.."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_thermal_conductivities

eugene1213
..What kind of sleeping bag should I choose when sleeping on the SNOW VS. COLD HARD SURFACE?
Thanks!
..


Two summer sleeping bags work fantastic in winter and that's what I always recommend to use. Get one bigger size and one normal size - for colder trips bring two bags, insert normal bag in bigger bag. People buy expensive -25C bags and that is a waste of money.  Having two summer bags is a lot cheaper than one -25C bag, it allows you to use normal size bag in summer, in shelters and in car camping, when -25C bag is impossible to sleep in (boiling hot!) unless it is at least -10C. Cold hard surface is colder than snow surface. So up to you to decide - some people sleep colder than other. 8)[/quote]

Thank you 博士
I will use zlite sol plus my reactor 3.8 then. :)
http://www.mec.ca/product/5027-4 ... g-pad-unisex/?q=sol
 楼主| 发表于 2016-4-6 13:46:59 | 显示全部楼层

Re: How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

eugene1213
Thank you 博士
I will use zlite sol plus my reactor 3.8 then. :)
http://www.mec.ca/product/5027-4 ... g-pad-unisex/?q=sol


Foam pads can be hard on your back. I used to use one like this. Until I received an air mattress as a gift. After so many years I realized why my back hurt so much after every backpacking trip! Not anymore. 8)
发表于 2016-4-6 13:58:50 | 显示全部楼层

Re: How to sleep comfortably at below -20C.

PanShiBo
Foam pads can be hard on your back. I used to use one like this. Until I received an air mattress as a gift. After so many years I realized why my back hurt so much after every backpacking trip! Not anymore. 8)


I have only used the Zlite Sol once, and it worked surprisingly well.(Maybe because I was sleeping on the grass, so the soil is soft enough). I will use foam+pad system this time and see how it works :D
Thanks 博士
 楼主| 发表于 2016-4-7 08:02:05 | 显示全部楼层

Alpine Tip #36 Do know which risk category you and your part

Alpine Tip #36 Do know which risk category you and your partner belong to.

In life, some people take risk, some people avoid it. It all depends on personal preferences. Nothing is morally wrong with either. However, in social sciences, it is a well known fact that people who have nothing to lose (no family, kids, house, career) will more likely accept risky ideas. On other hand, those who lead happy satisfying rich life, prefer sure things and would avoid taking risks even if it costs them high premium.

In alpine, it is extremely important to determine who you are - a risk taker or a risk avoider. And you should also know who your partner is. You two must be compatible! Two gamblers will be just fine traveling unroped on a glacier, or climbing steep exposed faces unprotected (so called "scrambling", "solo", "simulclimbing" etc.) when even a small mistake might be very expensive, for the sake of gaining the summit.

On the other hand, those who prefer avoiding risk will protect every move, and may not reach the summit because of running out of time; alpine protection slows down considerably.

A risk taker and a risk avoider together is a recipe for a ruined trip - a risk taker will want the summit at any  cost and risk avoider will want to come back home in one piece, heck with the summit!

Please note, that comparing "achievements" made by different categories makes no sense, obviously - even if only because the goals of those are not quite the same. 8)

PHOTO: Roped up climbers on Warren Glacier, en-route to the summit of Mt. Garibaldi. March 10, 2015
发表于 2016-4-9 15:01:18 | 显示全部楼层
PanShiBo
Munter Mule Knot

When to use: tying off a climber.



博士:
Question about Muter Mule Knot.
Is this knot an alternative to Personal Anchor System for climber?
 楼主| 发表于 2016-4-11 18:56:13 | 显示全部楼层
eugene1213

博士:
Question about Muter Mule Knot.
Is this knot an alternative to Personal Anchor System for climber?


No, it is not. I am not much familiar with Personal Anchor System and we never use it, looks like it is for rock/ water ice climbers. However, Munter Mule is used in general mountaineering and everywhere else, when so called "open systems" are required, and those are required for so called "load transfer" technique. "Load transfer" technique is required in emergency and rescue situations. Too much theory, huh? 8)
发表于 2016-4-11 21:57:58 | 显示全部楼层
PanShiBo
[quote]eugene1213

博士:
Question about Muter Mule Knot.
Is this knot an alternative to Personal Anchor System for climber?


No, it is not. I am not much familiar with Personal Anchor System and we never use it, looks like it is for rock/ water ice climbers. However, Munter Mule is used in general mountaineering and everywhere else, when so called "open systems" are required, and those are required for so called "load transfer" technique. "Load transfer" technique is required in emergency and rescue situations. Too much theory, huh? 8)[/quote]
I see 博士 and yes, there are MANY theories in mountaineering
:shock:

Personal Anchor System(PAS) is from Metolius.
I use it for anchor/secure myself when I reach the top of the climb to clean the anchor/belay second climber up to multipitch etc.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsiArSZzOJ4

I guess in terms of mountaineering, I want to carry as less gear/equipment as possible. And knowing all the knots with the rope I will be carrying will be much more beneficial.
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